By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are continuously altering. ordinary in the course of the global, this e-book will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth version. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from similar fields akin to biostatistics, infectious sickness keep an eye on, healthiness promoting, genetics, medical epidemiology, future health economics, and scientific ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's house for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. subsidized via the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of varied international locations. the entire definitions have been reviewed again and again by way of a global community of individuals from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with out being authoritarian. The Fourth version includes good over one hundred fifty new entries and enormous revisions of in regards to the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a number of the new phrases relate to tools utilized in environmental and medical epidemiology.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
Behavioral epidemics may be difficult to differentiate from, or may complicate, outbreaks of organic disease, for example, due to contamination of the environment by a toxic substance. BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR A characteristic or behavior that is associated with increased probability of a specified outcome; the term does not imply a causal relationship. BENCHMARK A slang or jargon term, usually meaning a measurement taken at the outset of a series of measurements of the same variable, sometimes meaning the best or most desirable value of the variable.
Progression. Transition of initiated promoted cells to a phase of unregulated growth and invasiveness, frequendy with metastases and morphologic changes in the cancer cells. CARRIER A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. The carrier state may occur in an individual with an infection that is inapparent throughout its course (known as healthy or asymptomatic carrier) or during the incubation period, convalescence, and postconvalescence of an individual with a clinically recognizable disease (known as incubatory carrier or convalescent carrier).
For example, the measles virus is necessary to cause measles in an unimmunized individual or population. 2. Xis necessary but not sufficient to cause Y. Xmust be present when Fis present, but Y is not always present when Xis. Some additional factor(s) must also be present; Xand Z—»F. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the necessary cause of tuberculosis but often is not a sufficient cause without poverty, poor nutrition, overcrowding, etc. 3. Xis not necessary but is sufficient to cause Y. Fis present when Xis, but Xmay or may not be present when F is present, because F has other causes and can occur without X.
A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last