By William Lockley Miller
Established upon surveys and interviews with executive officers and voters, this booklet makes a speciality of matters similar to bribery, corruption, inefficiency and freedom of knowledge in Ukraine, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The authors transcend an research of public perceptions and behavior and think about public attitudes in the direction of proposals for reform. They exhibit how the matter of voters' interactions with officers varies in type in addition to in measure around the international locations of critical and jap Europe.
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Additional info for A Culture of Corruption: Coping With Government in Post-Communist Europe
Fewerofficial forms, fewer documents, certificates and permissions mighthelp reduce the opportunities for extortion, but they would be welcomed even in societies with zero levels of corruption. Similarly, higher salaries for officials might reduce the motivation for corruption but even the most incorruptible officials would welcome higher salaries. These are not just anti-corruption reforms. Nonetheless, some reform proposals included in our questionnairessuch as punishing bribe givers equally with bribe takers-are specifically wins significantly aimed at reducing corruption.
Thus, for example, a cross-national correlation between (country-level indices 00 low-paid officials and corruption does not prove that, within countries, low pay Coping wiih Governmeni 25 encourages officialsto take bribes. Paradoxically,it is often the highestpaid officials in the poorest countries whoare the most corrupt. In principle this ‘ecological effect’ can take many forms but it usually manifests itself as a ‘super-additivity effect’ which leadsto greater differences between areas than might be predicted from the composition of their populations.
Even some Western economic statistics appear to have been manipulated for political endsg7In addition, crime statistics are notoriously unreliable. Victims under-report crime because they have little confidence in the police, and the police under-record reported crime to make their record look better. Official corruption statistics are even less reliable than other crime statistics because,as Richard Lotspeich notes, ‘no party to the transaction has much incentive to report it’88and, he might have added,the police are often involved init themselves.
A Culture of Corruption: Coping With Government in Post-Communist Europe by William Lockley Miller